Archive for Sunday, January 17, 2016

Document proving WWII military sex slaves now at home in KU library

Translated and saved by longtime KU professor, ‘Research Report No. 120’ credited with prompting Japan’s apology to ‘comfort women’

"Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces" is part of former KU professor Grant Goodman's personal papers, now located in the University Archives at KU's Spencer Research Library. The report, which Goodman translated for the U.S. Army during World War II, proves Japan had government-controlled brothels — featuring enslaved “comfort girls” from across Asia — specifically for its military men’s pleasure during World War II.

"Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces" is part of former KU professor Grant Goodman's personal papers, now located in the University Archives at KU's Spencer Research Library. The report, which Goodman translated for the U.S. Army during World War II, proves Japan had government-controlled brothels — featuring enslaved “comfort girls” from across Asia — specifically for its military men’s pleasure during World War II.

January 17, 2016

Advertisement

Grant Goodman, a longtime Kansas University history professor, naturally had many personal papers.

KU’s Spencer Research Library now houses 9 linear feet of them, divided among numerous boxes, gathered from Goodman’s home after his death in 2014.

But one particularly sensitive document was added to the library’s collection later, after being retrieved from Goodman’s safety deposit box: "Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces."

The 1945 report proves Japan had government-controlled brothels — some featuring enslaved “comfort girls” from across Asia — specifically for its military men’s pleasure during World War II.

Goodman himself translated it as a 20-year-old second lieutenant in the Army’s Military Intelligence Service, and what he did with the document decades later is credited with contributing to Japan’s 1993 formal apology to former prostitutes now known as “comfort women.” Just last month, Japan for the first time pledged government money — $8.3 million — to a foundation supporting the few remaining sex slaves from Korea, now in their 80s and 90s.

Grant Goodman, a longtime professor of history at Kansas University who died in 2014, is pictured at his home in Brandon Woods Retirement Community in this 2007 file photo. Goodman contributed a chapter to the book “Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II" about his wartime translation work for the U.S. Army that documented Japanese military brothels. That report is now archived at KU&squot;s Spencer Research Library.

Grant Goodman, a longtime professor of history at Kansas University who died in 2014, is pictured at his home in Brandon Woods Retirement Community in this 2007 file photo. Goodman contributed a chapter to the book “Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II" about his wartime translation work for the U.S. Army that documented Japanese military brothels. That report is now archived at KU's Spencer Research Library.

Goodman wrote of translating the document and eventually sharing it with the world in the article, “My Own Gaiatsu: A Document from 1945 Provides Proof,” which was printed in the 2001 book, “Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II.”

“I am, of course, proud of the crucial role that my own ‘Revelation’ of the contents of ATIS (Allied Translator and Interpreter Section) Research Report No. 120 played in bringing about the Japanese prime minister’s acceptance of responsibility for the so-called ‘comfort women,’” Goodman wrote. “However, as in so many analogous instances, that the Japanese government only made its admission and evidenced contrition after a foreigner provided incontrovertible evidence is truly tragic.”

•••

Goodman’s interest in Asia started as a child in Cleveland, where he collected stamps from all over the world and read voraciously, according to his obituary. After high school graduation, he was eager to formally pursue Asian Studies and started college at Princeton University.

In 1943, at 18, Goodman enlisted in the Army after being accepted into a special training program for Military Intelligence Service Japanese Language Officers, according to “My Own Gaiatsu.” By spring 1945 he was in Manila, the Philippines, assigned to the headquarters of U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur.

Goodman’s job was gathering and translating intelligence on, among other things, the morale of the Japanese military.

One contributing factor was their brothels.

Along with information about athletics, movies and canteen stores, what he learned about the brothels is outlined in detail in a bound document now archived at KU’s Spencer Research Library. Labeled "RESTRICTED," the booklet is titled:

Allied Translator and Interpreter Section

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers

Research Report

No. 120

Date. 15 Nov 45

AMENITIES IN THE JAPANESE ARMED FORCES

•••

According to the report, a booklet outlining rules and regulations for brothels in Manila, issued by a Japanese lieutenant colonel, made clear that such “houses of relaxation” were strictly for soldiers and army civilian employees.

"Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces" is part of former KU professor Grant Goodman&squot;s personal papers, now located in the University Archives at KU&squot;s Spencer Research Library. The report, which Goodman translated for the U.S. Army during World War II, proves Japan had government-controlled brothels — featuring enslaved “comfort girls” from across Asia — specifically for its military men’s pleasure during World War II.

"Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces" is part of former KU professor Grant Goodman's personal papers, now located in the University Archives at KU's Spencer Research Library. The report, which Goodman translated for the U.S. Army during World War II, proves Japan had government-controlled brothels — featuring enslaved “comfort girls” from across Asia — specifically for its military men’s pleasure during World War II.

The introduction page from "Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces," among former KU professor Grant Goodman&squot;s personal papers now in the University Archives at KU&squot;s Spencer Research Library.

The introduction page from "Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces," among former KU professor Grant Goodman's personal papers now in the University Archives at KU's Spencer Research Library.

A rate chart for prostitutes at a Japanese military brothel in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, from "Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces." Grant Goodman translated the report for the U.S. Army during World War II. "Research Report No. 120" is now held in the University Archives at KU&squot;s Spencer Research Library.

A rate chart for prostitutes at a Japanese military brothel in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, from "Research Report No. 120: Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces." Grant Goodman translated the report for the U.S. Army during World War II. "Research Report No. 120" is now held in the University Archives at KU's Spencer Research Library.

Permission from the army was required for everything from hiring new employees to setting prices, and prostitutes were forbidden to leave without army permission.

Employees got one holiday a month and had to pay their own expenses with one exception: “Medical expenses for illnesses arising from overwork will be met seventy percent by the managers and thirty percent by the hostesses. The diagnosis of an army physician will be the basis for determining whether any particular illness is due to overwork.”

Rules on hygiene were extensive.

Hostesses were required to be examined by an army physician once a week for venereal diseases and other illnesses, and forbidden from “entertaining” guests while sick.

Research Report No. 120 includes similar rules and other information about military brothels in Japan-occupied areas of the Philippines, Shanghai, Papua New Guinea, Burma and Indonesia.

There also are rate charts — indicating Korean prostitutes were more expensive than Chinese, and Japanese were more expensive than Korean — and various required forms for medical examinations and business operations.

A prisoner of war who had operated a military brothel in Burma said in the report that he and his wife purchased 22 Korean women from their families, with prices based on their looks, personalities and ages. Army authorities paid for the passage and medical treatment of the “comfort girls.”

“When a girl is able to repay the sum of money paid to her family, plus interest, she should be provided with a free return passage to Korea, and then considered free,” according to the report. “But owing to war conditions, no one of prisoner of war’s group had so far been allowed to leave.”

•••

At the time he translated it, the material didn’t arouse any special interest since the U.S. military “knew well” the Japanese were operating brothels for their armed forces, Goodman wrote in “My Own Gaiatsu.”

“Speaking personally, however, at the then tender age of 20 and being a very innocent youth from a middle-class American family in Ohio, I found these data very informative,” he wrote. “Accordingly, after our report was published for circulation at GHQ, I managed to keep a copy and mailed it home with a request that my parents keep it for me until my return from overseas.”

Goodman didn’t dig it out again until 1992, when he read an Associated Press story about a Japanese university professor named Yoshimi Yoshiaki who’d found documents in Defense Agency archives showing the Japanese government’s direct involvement in the WWII brothels.

However, Goodman wrote, the Japanese government questioned the authenticity of Yoshimi’s documents.

Goodman found this surprising.

After all, he and other Americans had known about the brothels and comfort women, or ianfu in Japanese, nearly 50 years, and he still had his copy of Research Report No. 120.

“Its contents were extremely specific and left no doubt of Japanese government responsibility for the ianfu brothels,” he said. “The question became what my next move should be.”

•••

Goodman FedEx’ed a copy of Research Report No. 120 to a Japanese journalist — one who’d interviewed him previously on another subject and called back to fact-check and verify quotes, Goodman wrote.

Miura Junji of the Kyodo News agency's Washington Bureau ended up with the scoop of his career.

In February 1992, a story on the report’s contents broke on the front page of nearly every Japanese newspaper and TV news program.

“The report, made available to Kyodo News Service by Professor Grant Goodman, a former translator of Imperial Japanese Army documents and now a Japanese scholar at the University of Kansas, provides the most detailed account yet on the controversial brothel operation run and abetted by the Japanese military in occupied Asian territories,” the story said, according to an English translation on file at KU.

In response to the media reports, Goodman said he received appreciative calls and letters from friends and strangers alike. He also received a call from the consulate general of Japan in Kansas City and, after consulting with his attorney, agreed to meet a consulate representative and provide him a copy of the document, too.

•••

Subsequent national and international pressure mounted on the Japanese government to admit its forceful recruitment of sex workers to service the Japanese military, Goodman wrote. In August 1993, the Japanese government issued a public admission and formal apology.

Historians say there were at least tens of thousands of Asian comfort women working in the Japanese military brothels.

The new comfort women settlement, announced in late December, has been called a landmark in the decades-long impasse on the issue between Japan and South Korea, where many women came from.

However, as recently as last year, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his allies — pressured by the right wing to scrap the 1993 apology — agreed to again review the evidence that led to it, according to a New York Times article on the settlement.

In 2007 Abe also publicly denied there was evidence to indicate Japan coerced women to work in the brothels, after which the Journal-World interviewed Goodman for his reaction.

“I was disbelieving,” Goodman told the newspaper. “I thought, ‘This is cuckoo, why now? This issue has been buried for years.’”

•••

"Gaiatsu" means "foreign pressure."

In his article “My Own Gaiatsu,” Goodman bemoans that’s apparently what it took to spur the comfort women apology.

“Why no one could find the document that I had in my personal files for almost half a century is still a mystery to me,” Grant wrote, noting that all his unit’s reports are in the National Archives and published on microfiche as “Wartime Translations of Seized Japanese Documents.” “I can assume, however, that contemporary researchers had simply failed to look for ianfu data in a report entitled ‘Amenities in the Japanese Armed Forces.’”

He went on.

“Professor Yoshimi’s documentary proof was certainly as convincing, if not more so, as anything contained in the ATIS document. Yet his efforts were apparently not taken seriously by the highest levels of Japanese governance. And even after my data received worldwide publicity, it required another year and a half for the Japanese cabinet to make a full admission.”

•••

After the war, Goodman completed his bachelor’s degree from Princeton in 1948 and went on to complete a master’s in Far Eastern studies and a doctorate in Japanese history from the University of Michigan, according to his obituary.

Grant Goodman pictured while stationed with the U.S. Army in Asia, circa 1945.

Grant Goodman pictured while stationed with the U.S. Army in Asia, circa 1945.

He joined the KU faculty in 1962, became a full professor in 1967 and co-directed KU’s Center for East Asian Studies. He retired in 1989.

Goodman died April 6, 2014, of lung cancer. He was 89.

Paul Stephen Lim, a KU English professor emeritus and friend and colleague of Goodman’s since 1962, was the executor of his estate.

Lim said Goodman’s attorney had advised him to keep Research Report No. 120 locked up. Lim indeed found it in Goodman’s safety deposit box after giving the majority of Goodman’s other papers to the Spencer Research Library.

Although Goodman had many stories from the war and his years researching and traveling overseas, he didn’t talk much about the comfort women until 1992, when he dug out that report, Lim said.

“Once this was made public he began to get a lot of phone calls from other scholars, from other publications,” Lim said. “There was a great deal of interest. And, of course, the Japanese were very, very upset.”

Contact KU and higher ed reporter Sara Shepherd
Have a tip or story idea?
More stories

Comments

christy kennedy 10 months, 4 weeks ago

Impressive story. Thanks to the professor, this article's author, and all other keepers and spreaders of truth and history.

Dorothy Hoyt-Reed 10 months, 4 weeks ago

Exactly. I do not think anything less of modern Japan, because of bad things in their past, just like I don't think anything less of the US, because of bad things in our past. This kind of goes along with Leonard Pitt's column, so this is where my train of thought is right now.

Matt Rose 10 months, 4 weeks ago

There are recorded documents (all verifiable) showing the following facts: 



  • Those war-time brothels were operated by individuals, mostly by Koreans.
  • Women at those brothels were earning high income. They were paid paid prostitutes. Not slaves.
  • Some women traveled home in Korea and returned on their own will.
  • Women were recruited openly by newspaper ads. Some testified that they were sold to brothels by parents or relatives.
  • There were NO (zero) news reports of protest of any kind in Korea, meaning women were not abducted or taken by force. Note many Koreans are in high positions in the police and the government.
  • During the war, a US Army troop captured 20 Korean women and interrogated them. The interrogation found that “comfort girls are nothing more than prostitutes or "professional camp followers"" and were not forced. This is in an official US Government document (US Office of War Report No. 49).
  • Asahi Newspaper, who originally reported comfort women as being systematically forced, has retracted all of its reports as being false.

There are many more evidences indicating those women were camp followers or war-time prostitutes. Japanese Army’s guilt was patronizing them, and not sending prostitutes home (this probably is something no army has done in history). 



Koreans’ attempt to whitewash those prostitutes as innocent victims by a foreign power, in essence, justifies prostitutes in their society. In fact, prostitution is still rampant in Korea today. Per its own government report, prostitution business accounts for >4% of Korean GDP. Korean prostitutes are also everywhere. The Los Angels Police Department found 90% of prostitutes caught in LA were Korean women. Again all these can be verified.

Koreans must face all the facts instead of falsifying them, and slandering and distorting Japan (the US is next). They must solve their *on-going * prostitution problem in their own society.

Thanh Tran 10 months, 4 weeks ago

And I bet you that your mother or grandmother were not of of those women!

If they were, I am pretty sure you will have a very different attitude.

Amber Fraley 10 months, 3 weeks ago

So your few minutes of internet research trumps this professors years of research and access to official Japanese government documents? Fascinating!

Raven Bo 10 months, 4 weeks ago

Grant Goodman: "Employees got one holiday" “Medical expenses for illnesses arising from overwork will be met seventy percent by the managers and thirty percent by the hostesses. " "purchased 22 Korean women from their families,"
This is more proof of PAID comfort prostitutes and PRIVATE managers/owners. Irony is even today, prostitution is legal in Nevada and USA/state government have various regulation,. USA have regulation for porn industries too.

Former prostitute lies to get 10 times retirement benefit. Today,"HellKorea" saying is a fad in Korea. Elderly Prostitute(Bacchus ladies,over 65) says "prostitution is better than starving to death." 100,0000 Korea prostitutes in foreign countries. S koreans have highly college graduate rate but only 50% find job. 2nd highest suicide rate in world. Koreans have huge personal loans, some at over 30%. S korea have 7 times serious crime rate and 14 times rape rate of japan. Koreans are taught false history. Comfort prostitute was paid about 1 week of wage from a solder. Korean manager/owner/recruiters(some tricked) were used. Back then, starving parents sold kids even in Japan. 1944 USA war report say prostitute ate well and buy luxury items. Former prostitute lies to get 10 times retirement benefit. google "real7777 HellKorea" "real7777 Annexation" "real7777 Korea Growth"

HUGE bank account of comfort prostitute

HUGE bank account of comfort prostitute by Raven Bo

Hyung-Sung Kim 10 months, 3 weeks ago

As a history student, I interviewed dozens of Koreans who were born in the 1920’s and 1930’s including my grandparents about comfort women. What they witnessed was Korean fathers selling their daughters, Korean comfort station owners deceiving Korean women. They never witnessed Japanese military coercing any Korean women.

Many of the Korean comfort women's fathers had debts and sold their daughters. The comfort station owners paid off their debts in advance, and depending on the amount of the debt, the woman's contract length was determined. Korean women were not allowed to leave until their debts were paid off. Any coercion, violence or confinement was exercised by the Korean owners. So if one wants to use the term "sex slaves" to describe former Korean comfort women, they were the sex slaves of Korean comfort station owners. They were not the sex slaves of the Japanese military. A diary written by a Korean comfort station worker discovered in 2013 confirms that fact.

I don't exonerate the Japanese military because its invasion into China and Southeast Asia did create the demand for comfort women. But the Korean narrative "The Japanese military showed up at the doors and abducted young Korean women" just didn't happen. The Korean comfort station owners capitalized on the demand, recruited Korean women, operated comfort stations and made lots of money. Japan has apologized for its part. South Korea should admit its complicity and stop demanding Japan for more apologies.

Hyung-Sung Kim 10 months, 3 weeks ago

The following are Korean newspaper reports from 1930's.

http://scholarsinenglish.blogspot.jp/2014/10/korean-newspaper-articles-from-1930s.html

The following are books written by the leading experts on this issue.

http://scholarsinenglish.blogspot.jp/

Jason Slater 10 months, 3 weeks ago

Funny headline.... makes it sounds like the sex slaves are now at home in the library....

Commenting has been disabled for this item.