Archive for Monday, February 4, 2013

Aquifer sees 2nd largest decline on record in 2012

February 4, 2013


Rex Buchanan returned recently to Lawrence from his annual tour of water wells in western Kansas.

As interim director of the Kansas Geological Survey, one of his jobs is to drive through the region each January and take measurements from about 1,400 water wells that tap into the vast underground reservoir called the Ogallala Aquifer.

That’s a pool of underground water locked inside the pores of gravel and sand lying several hundred feet below the surface. It stretches across several states, from Nebraska to Texas, including about 30,500 square miles in western and central Kansas.

There were few surprises in this year’s survey. The water tables have dropped since the year before, by a lot. There was a drop of about three and a half feet overall, he said, with a little more in northwestern Kansas, which was especially dry in 2012. In southwestern Kansas, which saw a little more rain last year than the year before, the decrease wasn’t quite as severe.

“Just as a matter of perspective, the declines we saw last year when we measured in January 2012 (when declines averaged 4.25 feet), those were the largest declines we’ve ever seen in the time we’ve been doing this program,” Buchanan said. “The declines that we saw in January 2013 were the second-largest declines.”

The question that many people are now asking — and the one for which nobody has a firm answer — is how much longer that can continue.

“That has been the 35-year conversation,” said Mark Rude, executive director of Groundwater Management District No. 3, which governs water resources in much of southwestern Kansas. “It’s that proverbial conundrum, if you will, between economic opportunity and sustainability.”

A groundwater-based economy

Most of western Kansas has a semi-arid climate, meaning it’s not quite a desert, but it tends to lose slightly more water through evaporation each year than it receives in precipitation. That makes it naturally suitable for growing wheat and other kinds of grasses, which is what most farmers there did from the pioneer days through the mid-20th century.

In the 1950s, however, a new invention called center-pivot irrigation, farmers were able to tap into the aquifer lying 200 to 500 feet below the surface. Those giant, rotating sprinkler systems form the circular fields that are so visible from airplanes flying over.

Irrigation greatly increased the production capacity of the region and enabled farmers to grow more water-intensive and higher-value crops such as corn and sorghum. That helped attract much of the U.S. cattle industry to the High Plains, and helped spawn another industry in the region, ethanol production.

As a result, much of the region’s economy today is based on “mining” water from the ground to support a kind of agricultural production that otherwise would not be possible in such a climate.

The problem, according to Buchanan, is that even in a normal year, the aquifer only recharges at a rate of about a half-inch per year. But farmers, ranchers and the city water utility systems there are pumping water out at a rate of two to four feet per year, sometimes more. And that rate only increases during periods of prolonged drought such as the one the region is now experiencing.

At the groundwater management district office in Garden City, Rude says the handwriting is on the wall.

“There’s no question about it, we’re running smack dab into the limitations of the aquifer itself today and the demand placed upon it by those pumping wells,” he said.

Conservation may only be buying time

Under Kansas law, all water resources are considered public property, belonging to the people of Kansas generally, and the right to divert water from a river or stream, or to pump it from underground, for anything other than domestic household use is strictly controlled by the state.

In recent years, as water tables in certain parts of the Ogallala Aquifer have declined sharply, state and local officials have imposed several measures aimed at conserving the resource.

Starting this year, for example, Groundwater Management District No. 3 is imposing stiffer penalties for users who pump more than their permits allow, with fines up to $10,000 and a one-year suspension of water rights for repeated violations.

Another measure has been to close off large areas of the aquifer to new water right appropriations. According to maps published by the state Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources, most of southwestern and south-central Kansas are now covered by those closures.

According to Rude, that has had far-reaching economic consequences, one of which has been to drive up land values in the area, as well as the value of the water rights themselves, tangible assets that can be bought, sold or even temporarily transferred from one party to another. But as data from groundwater surveys shows, it hasn’t stopped, or even slowed, the rate of depletion in the aquifer.

In Dodge City, the municipal government has also taken measures to conserve water. City manager Ken Stroble said the city recently installed a new kind of water reclamation facility that recycles the city’s wastewater so it can be used as a source of irrigation water.

“The water reclamation is kind of a state-of-the-art facility that actually purifies the wastewater – they call it grey water – to the point where you can’t drink it, but you can use it for public ground irrigation,” Stroble said. “We are now irrigating our public golf course with the grey water instead of fresh water.”

Meanwhile, state officials have tried to encourage farmers who irrigate to shift to dry-land farming to reduce demand on the aquifer. But Buchanan at the Kansas Geological Survey says that has had only limited success.

“At the same time all of this has been going on, commodity prices have been going up – wheat prices and corn prices,” he said.

The bottom line, officials say, is that the water resource of the Ogallala Aquifer is limited, and it’s being used up faster than it can be replenished. That leaves everyone asking how much longer the economy of western Kansas can remain dependent on that resource.

“It’s essentially fossil water we’re mining,” said Rude at the groundwater management district. “So you either say we’re done and we have no more economy, which we’re not going to do, or you say let’s make every drop count. That’s the focus of the conversation. The only other option is the importation of water.”


hooligan01 5 years, 3 months ago

Yeah, cause they're just sooo many pipeline spills.......

Topple 5 years, 3 months ago

Facts are hard, but fantasy is easy.

bad_dog 5 years, 3 months ago

Yeah, and accidents like the Deepwater Horizon blowout also never happen either.

Perhaps that's why incidents like these are referred to as "Black Swans" and Risk Managers take their potential into acount while planning. You know, because while rare, they COULD occur and the results can be devastating. But we don't need no stinkin' planning, right?

gccs14r 5 years, 3 months ago

Farmers will return to dryland farming voluntarily or it will be forced on them either by nature or the government.

Steve Jacob 5 years, 3 months ago

The pipeline is a double edge sword. $4+ gas wrecked the economy in 2008, Maybe $5-6 gas this decade does the same thing.

kernal 5 years, 3 months ago

Gas prices didn't wreck the economy. Mortgage bankers such as Countrywide got that ball rolling. We can thank ongoing bank deregulation after the savings and loan industry went kaput in the late 1980's. Gas prices were not high enough to have the kind of effect on the economy as you seem to think. Devaluing of real estate and loss of jobs in the Phoenix area is what affected them, just like the savings and loans collapse did. Two of AZ largest industrys are tied to tourism and real estate; due to the economic pressures across the globe, both slowed down considerably. Phoenicians also need to quit driving gas guzzlers and do more telecommuting.

Steve Jacob 5 years, 3 months ago

Hosing buddle burst in 2007, and the gas price spike in 2008 led to a perfect storm of people cashing out of banks and stocks, leading to banks needing quick cash. I mean the Dow Jones lost 40% between Labor Day and Election Day before hitting the bottom of 6500 in March of 2009. Looks at the Dow Jones at 14K now, the rich got richer under Obama.

Topple 5 years, 3 months ago

That's a bit of a stretch. You're pairing gas prices with subprime mortgages and saying it's the gas that was the problem? You could substitute anything in for gas prices and say the same thing. $4 generic brand medicine collapsed the economy because people couldn't afford to pay for both medicine and their subprime mortgage.

Guess what, if gas prices get too high for your taste, you'll find a substitute for using it.

Michael LoBurgio 5 years, 3 months ago

Key Facts on Keystone XL

•TransCanada predicted that the Keystone I pipeline would see one spill in 7 years. In fact, there have been 12 spills in 1 year. The company was ordered to dig up 10 sections of pipe after government-ordered tests indicated that defective steel may have been used. KeystoneXL will use steel from the same Indian manufacturer.

Keystone XL will not lessen U.S. dependence on foreign oil, but transport Canadian oil to American refineries for export to overseas markets.

•Keystone XL is an export pipeline. According to presentations to investors, Gulf Coast refiners plan to refine the cheap Canadian crude supplied by the pipeline into diesel and other products for export to Europe and Latin America. Proceeds from these exports are earned tax-free. Much of the fuel refined from the pipeline’s heavy crude oil will never reach U.S. drivers’ tanks.

Graczyk 5 years, 3 months ago

Much of that cotton is irrigated, although it is said to use less water than corn.

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