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Archive for Thursday, February 7, 2008

Distress call

Scientists deem leap year good time to raise awareness about frog extinction

Scientists estimate that from one-third to one-half of amphibian species are in danger of extinction. Shown here is a red-eyed tree frog.

Scientists estimate that from one-third to one-half of amphibian species are in danger of extinction. Shown here is a red-eyed tree frog.

February 7, 2008

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"Panamanian golden frog"

"Panamanian golden frog"

"Giant waxy tree frog"

"Giant waxy tree frog"

"White's tree frog"

"White's tree frog"

They say you have to kiss a lot of frogs to find a prince. Still, with more than 6,000 species of amphibians around the world, you might think the odds are pretty good, if you can stand the slimy lips.

But frogs are disappearing at an alarming rate - scientists estimate that from one-third to one-half of amphibian species are in danger of extinction. That's why this year - a leap year - of course - has been designated as Year of the Frog by global conservation organizations. To raise awareness, many zoos and aquariums across the country are planning events on Leap Day, Feb. 29.

Internet dating may have replaced amphibian-smooching in the modern search for a mate. But there are many other reasons that the loss of frogs should concern all of us.

"Frogs are really good indicators of what's going on in the environment around us," says Kym Gopt, associate curator of conservation at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo in Ohio.

Most frogs live both in water and on land at different stages of their lives, as tadpoles and as adults, so they're affected by problems in both types of habitat. And since they take in water directly through their delicate skin, they're acutely sensitive to water quality.

So frogs can be seen as an early warning system of problems that may eventually affect the rest of us. "If chemicals in the water cause mutations and reproductive problems in frogs, think what it could be doing to humans," says Vicky Poole of the National Aquarium in Baltimore.

Frogs are important for other reasons as well. Frogs and tadpoles consume huge numbers of insects - many of which cause crop damage and disease - and are themselves an important food source for many other species. And amphibians are valuable to science in ways that directly affect humans.

"They're important because they've had a huge role in medicine, research and medical applications," says Shelly Grow, conservation biologist with Association of Zoos and Aquariums. "Many medical compounds have been found because of the secretions in their skin or the microbial communities on their skin."

Why are frogs disappearing so rapidly? Like many other animals, they are affected by habitat loss and climate change, as well as pollution. But a special problem is a disease that's spreading all over the world, a fungus of a type called chytrid.

"When this fungus arrives in an area, 50 percent in the area might go extinct within six months," says Grow.

Some species affected by the fungus have been successfully bred in captivity, like the Panamanian golden frog. But fast action is critical if conservationists hope to reproduce this success. Fortunately for the golden frog, Grow says, a lot of research was done before the population was reduced, so zoos had the knowledge needed to breed them in captivity. Other species don't have this advantage.

"The room for trial and error is now particularly slim," says Grow. "We can't take out a few hundred and say oops, that didn't work."

Of course, even if we successfully breed a species, what if their habitat has been destroyed? As Poole says, "I can't go and return a frog to a parking lot."

In Ohio, the Leap into Action program actually gives you a way to contribute directly to habitat restoration. Vern, the program's mascot, is a wood frog, a species that reproduces in what are called vernal pools.

"They're ephemeral habitats that only exist in the spring," Gopt explains. "They're critical to amphibians because they don't harbor fish, so amphibians can lay their eggs in a place that's predator-free."

Because they're invisible for most of the year, vernal pools are especially at risk of succumbing to development. So naturalists in Ohio are working on recreating them in safe locations, with public support. Children can buy a Leap into Action passport for a dollar, which goes to creating new vernal pools, and get stickers on the passport at the different partner institutions.

Gopt is also excited about the program's efforts to spread the word about individual involvement. "We get letters all the time from kids who do all sorts of things. There's a frog blog on the Web site where kids can share all their experiences."

Come to the Leap Day events at your local institution, and "we'll sneak a little science in on you," says Poole, but you'll also see that we should save frogs simply because they're wonderful.

"Very few people don't like frogs," she says. "When they see that there's a blue frog, and there's a bright red frog - that sheer diversity just amazes people."

You can find local Leap Day events at www.aza.org/Promotions/LeapDay/. To learn more about frogs, go to www.amphibianark.org.

Comments

ibroke 6 years, 2 months ago

does this mean the price of frog legs will go up? too bad I love them!!

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Pywacket 6 years, 2 months ago

Amen to that, Lounger! That's great that you're looking out for them on that 20 acres.

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lounger 6 years, 2 months ago

I love frogs and toads. Very interesting creatures. We all need to make sure they have clean habitats and in Kansas we have pretty much failed on that one! I feel that we can do some things. I have 20 acres that I watch over in the Flint Hills (no one really owns land) and the bull frogs do seem less and less. The Tree frogs seem to be alright but its easy to hear them. I do all I can to make sure the creek we have running through the property is clean as we can make it. The Only pollution we have is from upstream and that is minimal. Its one of the only spots in Kansas I know of where the water is clean 85% of the Time. The only concern we have is in the spring burnoff when the filtration system for the water is comprimised for a few weeks until the grass upstream (on the neighbors proporty) grows back. So yes its do-able it just takes a commitment. Just give our little green and brown friends a chance!!

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Pywacket 6 years, 2 months ago

Cue all the right wingers to crawl out from under their rocks to deny that there's a problem, and tostart croaking the same old tired lines about "liberals" being overreactionary and making stuff up. It's a conspiracy, led by the Frog King! Don't forget to don your tinfoil hats before you snuggle back under those rocks.

logrithmic~ This story was picked up from the wire, which is why there's no local angle. But I agree-- it would be nice if a local biologist would supply us with some numbers on local amphibian populations. (Any frog researchers out there?)

In the years we've lived in our current house, it does seem that they've declined. We used to hear more species--most notably, we used to hear a lot of bullfrogs, and now we don't. (We have close to 3 acres, with a spring-fed stream and a small pond.) As soon as it warms up a little, I expect to hear spring peepers, but I don't know how many species we have here, or whether any of them are doing better or worse than any others.

I haven't heard of deformities in local frogs, either--mostly, I've read about them being found in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, if I recall correctly. I'm not sure if that's because the problem is worse there or simply whether that's where they're being formally counted and studied by biologists...

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OldEnuf2BYurDad 6 years, 2 months ago

Caption under photo:

"They actually hand you a toasted English muffin."

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logrithmic 6 years, 2 months ago

I would have preferred for this story to have a local angle.

So far, I've got plenty of frogs on my property and I've not observed any deformed ones. I wonder if that is the experience across the county?

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