Posts tagged with R.W. Wood
I had a dream last night in which Barack Obama was wearing a helmet and carrying a lance like the fictional character Don Quixote who had a reputation for attacking make believe foes. The only other clothing Obama had on was swimming trunks. He was riding a horse that had a remarkable resemblance to John Kerry
As he moved his lance up and down he was chanting: "we must stop global warming." He continued to chant as the reading on the thermometer dropped below freezing and he began turning blue.
He continued chanting "we must stop global warming" as the snow began to fall. Soon the snow was up to his knees with his horse unable to move, but he continued to chant "we must stop global warning" until the snow covered him and his horse.
Obama's comments on non-existent global warming this winter demonstrates how he is increasingly out of touch with reality. Obama talked about global warming in a State of the Union speech delivered on a night when the Gulf Coast was preparing to deal with freezing temperatures. He urged businesses to switch to natural gas at a time when natural gas companies were asking for rate increases because the cold weather was creating a shortage of gas.
Obama wants to spend $1billion dealing with non-existent global warming at a time when cities are trying to find money to pay the costs of a snow filled winter.
Obama has continued to push his global warming nonsense through his Secretary of State John Kerry.
A rational president would have omitted mention of the global warming issue during a severe cold spell because he would have recognized that people who were worried about their cars slip sliding off the road aren't going to believe talk about global warming. But then a rational president would understand that the claim that CO2 causes something called global warming is nonsense. The claim is based on a 19th Century myth that greenhouses and the atmosphere are heated by trapping infrared radiation. Physicist R. W. Wood disproved this claim in 1909.
Law enforcement personnel will tell you that if a financial opportunity sounds too good to be true, it's probably a scam. With political scams the reverse is true. Politicians will make the situation sound much worse than it is. For example, President George W. Bush insisted we had to invade Iraq to keep Saddam Hussein from giving Weapons of Mass Destruction to al Qaeda. The fact is that there is no way a paranoid dictator like Hussein would have given WMD to an organization that might want to take his job. The people pushing the global warming hysteria are claiming all sorts of unbelievable calamities will occur.
Obama is also out of touch with reality in the Ukrainian crisis. His criticism of Russia is questionable He calls the Ukraine a democracy even though the current change in government control occurred as the result of protests rather than election. The pro European Union group took control after members of the president's party were scared into changing sides or leaving. What is left of the government may not be sufficient to qualify as a viable national government of the ethnically divided country. Crimea is an autonomous republic within the Ukraine with a mostly Russian population. Only 28% of the population is ethnic Ukrainian. Reestablishing a stable government in the Ukraine will be more difficult if ethnic Russians are forced to be part of a nation where they don't feel they belong. Thus it would make more sense for the republic to become part of Russia then remain part of the Ukraine. Russia is attempting to stabilize an unstable political situation and prevent a civil war. Obama doesn't understand that President Vladimir Putin isn't going to destroy the government and then let the country descend into chaos like Obama did in Libya.
Obama seems oblivious to the possibility that calling attention to a nation in which protestors forced a president to resign might encourage his opponents to try to use protests to push him into resigning. His support for those who used protests to change the government indicates he considers that approach an acceptable alternative to elections.
The 25th Amendment to the Constitution who is physically or mentally unable to handle the duties of President. The vice president and members of the cabinet can temporarily relieve a president who has lost touch with reality. The presidency is a high stress job and high stress can cause mental and physical problems including high blood pressure and heart disease. Many historians . believe that the stress of dealing with political scandals killed President Warren G. Harding.
The claim that carbon dioxide (CO2) can increase air temperatures by "trapping" infrared radiation (IR) ignores the fact that in 1909 physicist R.W. Wood disproved the popular 19th Century thesis that greenhouses stayed warm by trapping IR. Unfortunately, many people who claim to be scientists are unaware of Wood's experiment which was originally published in the Philosophical magazine , 1909, vol 17, p319-320.
Philosophical Magazine might not sound like the name of a science publication, but a century ago leading scientists published their discoveries in it.
During the early 19th Century many physicists supported the theory postulated by Benjamin Franklin that heat involved some type of fluid. The theory became known as "caloric theory". Joseph Jean Baptiste Fourier's theory that the atmosphere was heated from infrared radiation from the ground was a variation of caloric theory with IR functioning as the "fluid". Fourier believed greenhouses were heated by trapping this radiation.
Physicists in the early 19th Century were attempting to develop theories to explain the nature of atoms and their properties such as heat. Physicists theorized that atoms were the smallest particles of matter.
By the end of the century a new theory of heat, called "kinetic theory", was being developed that suggested heat was the motion, or kinetic energy, of atoms. However, Fourier's theory that IR heated the atmosphere particularly by interacting with carbon dioxide and water vapor continued to have support.
In 1897 J.J. Thompson overturned the popular theory of the atoms being the smallest particles of matter by reporting his discovery of the electron and predicting two other types of charged particles he called protons and neutrons.
Wood was an expert on IR. His accomplishments included inventing both IR and UV (ultraviolet) photography. In 1909 he decided to test Fourier's theory about how greenhouses retained heat.
Wood constructed two identical small greenhouses. The description implies the type of structure a gardener would refer to as a "cold frame" rather than a building a person could walk into.
He lined the interior with black cardboard which would absorb radiation and convert it to heat which would heat the air through conduction. The cardboard would also produce radiation. He covered one greenhouse with a sheet of transparent rock salt and the other with a sheet of glass. The glass would block IR and the rock salt would allow it to pass.
During the first run of the experiment the rock salt greenhouse heated faster due to IR from the sun entering it but not the glass greenhouse. He then set up another pane of glass to filter the IR from the sun before the light reached the greenhouses.
The result from this run was that the greenhouses both heated to about 50 C with less than a degree difference between the two. Wood didn't indicate which was warmer or whether there was any difference in the thermal conductivity between the glass sheet and the rock salt. A slight difference in the amount of heat transfered through the sheets by conduction could explain such a minor difference in temperature. The two sheets probably didn't conduct heat at the same rate.
The experiment conclusively demonstrates that greenhouses heat up and stay warm by confining heated air rather than by trapping IR. If trapping IR in an enclosed space doesn't cause higher air temperature than CO2 in the atmosphere cannot cause higher air temperatures.
The heated air in the greenhouses couldn't rise higher than the sheets that covered the tops of the greenhouses. Heated air outside is free to rise allowing colder air to fall to the ground.
Atmospheric CO2 is even less likely to function as a barrier to IR or reflect it back to reheat the ground or water than the sheet of glass in Wood's greenhouse.
The blackened cardboard in Wood's greenhouses was a very good radiator of IR as is typical of black substances. The water that covers 70% of earth's surface is a very poor radiator and produces only limited amounts of IR as is typical of transparent substances. Water releases heat through evaporation rather than radiation.
The glass sheet provided a solid barrier to IR. Atmospheric CO2 is widely dispersed comprising less than 400 parts per million in the atmosphere. Trapping IR with CO2 would be like trying to confine mice with a chain link fence.
Glass reflects a wider spectrum of IR than interacts with CO2. The glass sheets reflected IR back toward the floor of the greenhouse. CO2 doesn't reflect IR.
At the time of Wood's experiment, it was believed that CO2 and other gas molecules became hotter after absorbing IR.
Four years later Niels Bohr reported his discovery that the absorption of specific wavelengths of light didn't cause gas atoms/molecules to become hotter. Instead, the absorption of specific wavelengths of light caused the electrons in an atom/molecule to move to a higher energy state. After absorption of light of a specific wavelength an atom couldn't absorb additional radiation of that wavelength without first emitting light of that wavelength. He called the amount of energy absorbed and emitted as a "quantum". (Philosophical Magazine Series 6, Volume 26 July 1913, p. 1-25)
Unlike the glass which reflects IR back where it comes from, CO2 molecules emit IR up and sideways as well as down. In the time interval between absorbing and reemitting radiation, CO2 molecules allow IR to pass them by. Glass continuously reflects IR.
Those who claim that CO2 molecules in the atmosphere can cause heating by trapping IR have yet to provide any empirical scientific evidence to prove such a physical process exists. The experiment by R.W. Wood demonstrates that even a highly reflective covering that reflects a broad spectrum of IR cannot cause heating by trapping IR in a confined space. There is no way CO2, which at best only affects a small portion of the IR produced by earth's surface, can heat the atmosphere by trapping IR.
Contrary to the lie repeated in news stories about climate, science doesn't say that CO2 is causing higher temperatures by trapping IR. Empirical science indicates that no such process exists in this physical universe.
Professor Stephen Hawking's support for the global warming myth raises doubts about his knowledge of physics.
Professor Stephen Hawking's "A Brief History of Time" is one of the books I would like to reread if I could find the time. However, after learning that he supports the global warming myth I would read the book a little more critically than I did the first time.
Hawking says he's concerned about earth becoming as hot as Venus, but the alleged "greenhouse effect" cannot explain temperatures on Venus as I noted in my previous post.
I hope that Hawking is simply repeating something he's been told, but hasn't taken time to examine. If Hawking took the time to examine both sides of the debate over global warming he would realize that global warming is based on a long discredited 19th Century theory that is inconsistent with the laws of thermodynamics. The so called greenhouse effect represents a form of perpetual motion machine that is inconsistent with accepted thermodynamic theories
Jean Baptist Joseph Fourier claimed in 1827 that greenhouses worked by allowing in sunlight and then trapping the infrared radiation produced inside to heat the greenhouse. R. W. Wood disproved this theory in a 1909 experiment that indicated no significant difference in temperature between a greenhouse that "trapped" IR and one that was transparent to IR. In fact in the initial run of the experiment the transparent greenhouse heated faster because the one that reflected IR reflected incoming solar IR back into space.
The greenhouse in R.W. Wood's experiment trapped a much broader spectrum of IR than CO2 interacts with. If that greenhouse didn't heat up more than a greenhouse that didn't "trap" IR, then how can anyone believe that CO2 could cause heating by interacting with IR.
The whole idea that a gas comprising less than 0.04% of the atmosphere can determine its temperature by interacting with a small range of infrared radiation (IR) sounds more like magic than science.
Supporters of the greenhouse gas theory have an extremely superficial view of earth's very complex energy system. They believe that earth must radiate as much energy as it receives from the sun and thus maintain a radiative balance even though such a situation is impossible.
In the first place 70% of earth is covered by water which doesn't radiate well. Much of the solar radiation is absorbed by plants which store it as the electron bonds that hold complex carbon molecules together instead of converting it to heat and then radiating it into space.
Before the ground can convert heat to radiation much of the heat energy is conducted to the air. Bodies of water also release heat energy to the atmosphere through the evaporation of water. Physicists define heat as the kinetic energy or motion of atoms/molecules. As air molecules move up from the ground gravity slows them down by converting part of their kinetic energy (heat) to potential energy. The slowing of gas molecules means they become cooler because heat is the motion of molecules. Thus, earth's atmosphere is gravity cooled rather than being radiation cooled.
Earth is actually radiating more energy into space than it did in 1900. Human generated radiation has greater wattage than natural radiation and the energy is radiated in a much broader spectrum ranging from x-rays through long wave radio waves. Satellites can detect human settlements by the difference in radiation they produce compared to vegetation covered areas.
The data that those who claim global warming say supports warming temperatures in the 20th Century is inadequate for that purpose. They claim only a 0.25% increase which could easily result from changes in equipment or inaccuracies in the thermometers used in 1900 which were not as accurate as those used today. Changes in the thermal characteristics of the thermometer sites could explain the increase, particularly considering that many of today's sites are at airports with heat producing asphalt that did not exist in 1900.
A change of only 0.25% might be significant in the controlled conditions of a laboratory with precision equipment, but not in the open air with equipment that may not always be in good operating condition.
Mathematicians Bjarne Andresen, Christopher Essex and Ross McKitrick have pointed out that the idea of a global average temperature is absurd. "A temperature can be defined only for a homogeneous system. Furthermore, the climate is not governed by a single temperature. Rather, differences of temperatures drive the processes and create the storms, sea currents, thunder, etc. which make up the climate".
Most real scientists, including social scientists, gave up using broad averages decades ago because such averages cover up too much information. For example, in climate the amount of time the temperature is above or below freezing is more important than the average temperature of the region because long periods of below freezing temperatures favors snow/ice cover and long periods of above freezing temperatures favors melting. Snow melts depend upon heat distribution not any global average. Significant melting could occur even if global temperatures were cooler because melting snow absorbs heat and cools the air. In order to melt, a single gram of snow must absorb enough heat to cool 80 grams of water 1 C.
Temperatures went up and down in the 20th Century while the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere gradually increased. The heat generated by human activity also increased and would be the more likely cause of any human caused heating. Replacement of plant covered areas by pavement also directly causes heating of the air.
Hawking has apparently failed to read the essay by Dr. Gerhard Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner - (Falsification of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effects Within the Framework of Physics�) which points out the claim of greenhouse gases and a greenhouse effect conflict with established physics theories.
Hawking may also be unaware that NASA scientist Ferenc Miskolczi has revealed that the equation used to calculate catastrophic warming contains a major flaw. The equation falsely assumed an atmosphere of infinite thickness. Such a condition might be consistent with a black hole, but not the planet earth.
The claim that CO2 has some ability to control air temperature is a cancer growing on science. Many astrophysicists believe that the earth is about to enter a period of colder temperature associated with the sun entering a portion of a centuries long cycle in which it is less active. If the astrophysicists are correct, all of science may be discredited if the claim that global warming is based on science has not been abandoned.
A major difference between science and religion is that science relies on verification through repeated observation and experimentation while religion relies on acceptance of beliefs. The experiment that examined heating in a greenhouse demonstrated that trapping IR didn't cause higher temperatures. Unfortunately, those who believe that humans can control the environment through changes in a minor atmospheric gas aren't interested in scientific proof.
If Professor Hawking wants to protect science he needs to talk to those scientists who question global warming and then change his opinion.