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Gay Marriage, Gay Adoption
Why shouldn't gay marriage be legalized? What harm could it cause to others? The answers to these questions are always fuzzy. It harms the "sanctity" of marriage, or somehow, in some indirect fashion, increases divorce or some other harm. The harm of not legalizing gay marriage is definite and direct--gay couples are not allowed to marry.
So on the one hand we have some abstract harm that may not even exist and on the other hand we have a concrete harm that directly affects people's lives in a negative way. In addition the proposed harms are always harms against society in general. No one is brazen enough to claim that gay marriage would in any way harm them directly. The gay couple down the street getting married doesn't hurt you in the slightest. Morally, people should be given the freedom to live as they choose--so long as it doesn't harm others. As such gay couples should have the freedom to enter into marriage if they want to.
Regarding gay adoption, yes, it is true that the ideal situation is for a child to have a mother and a father. But it is certainly better for a child to have two same sex parents than no parents at all, and that makes giving a child to the foster care system a worse option than allowing gay couples to adopt them. In addition, socio-economic status has a huge effect on children regarding things like high school dropout rates, drug addiction and criminal behavior. It's a fact that gay couples tend to make more money and live in nicer neighborhoods than their non-gay counterparts. If we are to truly examine all factors, this certainly weighs in favor of allowing gay adoption. Also the state doesn't take action to prevent children from living in other non-ideal situations like single-parent households or living with grandparents, and the state doesn't act to prevent gay people from keeping their own biological children either.
Finally there is the question of rights. If someone wants to give up their child for adoption, and a gay couple wants to adopt that child, why shouldn't they have the right to do so if they meet all the same qualifications that a non-gay couple meets like a criminal background check and financial ability to care for a child? The default position in a country founded on freedom is that people have a freedom unless there is a good reason to take it away. I see no good reason to deny gay couples the freedom to adopt.